Safety for Car – Understanding the Anti-Lock Braking System in Detail

Safety for Car – Understanding the Anti-Lock Braking System in Detail

Anti-Lock Braking System or ABS is essential for safety for car. It is also known as Anti-Skid Braking System. The Anti-Lock Braking System helps the driver to stop the vehicle in slippery areas and also helps to stable the vehicle. In slippery areas, even the professional drivers can’t stop the vehicle at such a time and that causes serious accidents. On the other hand, with the help of Anti-Lock Braking System, even a new driver can stop the vehicle and reduce the chances of an accident.

Safety for car is very important for every vehicle and all the car companies especially the big names are now featuring their vehicles with the latest safety features to ensure the safety of its riders and help them to have a safe journey. Companies are fitting many safety features in the vehicles to secure the vehicles and its riders. One of the most important safety features is Anti-Lock Braking System that is now a part of every vehicle.

Safety for Car – More about Anti-Lock Braking System

If we have a look at car safety list then we will definitely see the name of Anti-Lock Braking System as it is the most important safety feature for vehicles. Companies are launching the vehicles with this feature and the masses are giving a special focus to this feature.

Safety for Car – More about Anti-Lock Braking System

ABS is now a significant part of every vehicle, this feature avoid the uncontrolled skidding and this system is very vital for the trips to hilly areas. This system is featured with threshold braking and cadence braking that was used previously by skilled drivers and Anti-Lock Braking System did exactly the same, but more rapidly and with better control as compare to skilled drivers.

This system helps the driver a lot in controlling the vehicle more rapidly in slippery areas and on dry surfaces and on the surface that is covered with snow, this system increases the braking distance and improves the steering control. By the passing time, we see a lot of improvement in Anti-Lock Braking System as it is now equipped with electronically controlling the front to rear brake bias and now this system works more efficiently.

Also read: Look Out for these 9 Safety Features when you buy

History of Anti-Lock Braking System

Anti-Lock Braking System is a safety of a car and in 1908, an Anti-Lock Braking System was firstly used only in trains and then the people started using this system in aircraft in 1950. In 9158, the road research laboratory used this system in a Royal Enfield Super Meteor Motorcycle and this experiment remained successful. In 1960, the system was featured in the Ferguson P99 racing car and in Jensen FF, but that experiment was turned out not to be good enough as it was very expensive and the experts labeled it an unreliable feature. In the late 60s, the fully electric ABS was launched for the Concorde Aircraft.

History of Anti-Lock Braking System

In 1971, Chrysler creates a bond with Bendix Corporation and introduced an Anti-lock Braking System and at that time this system was named as “Sure Brake”. This system works successfully for many years that is why the companies labeled it a reliable system.

In 1971, Ford was the first company who started using this system in their Lincoln Continental vehicle as an optional feature for rear wheels and Ford named this system as “Sure Track”. After that, the General Motors used this system as an optional feature in their vehicles in the same year and they named it a “Track Master”. Then, Nissan, Toyota, Fiat, WABCO, Mercedes-Benz, Ford Scorpio, BMW, and Lincoln started using this system respectively in different years.

Also read: Car Safety Technology – Pre-Crash Safety Systems and Their Process

Components of Anti-Lock Braking System

ABS is a safety of a car and this feature has four main components that include Speed Sensors, Valves, Pump, and Controller.

Components of Anti-Lock Braking System

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Speed Sensors

The speed sensor is used to examine the acceleration and declaration of the wheel and this sensor this featured with Hall Effect sensor and with a magnet. The rotation of the wheel used the magnetics and that magnetic generates a voltage on the sensor. The voltage is induced in the sensor and that results in the slow speeds and the slow rotation of the tyres can create inaccurate variations in the magnetic fields and that causes inaccurate readings to the controller.


There is a brake line in every brake that is controlled by ABS and sometimes the valve has three positions that include an open valve that passed the pressure from the master cylinder directly to the brake. In other position, the valves get blocked and it isolates the brake from the master cylinder. This position prevents the pressure from further rising and the driver has to push the brake pedal harder. In third valve position, it releases the pressure from the brake. The main problem occurs in this system is only when the valve is blocked and at that position the valve is unable to open, close or even to change a position.


In Anti-Lock Braking System after the valve has released the pump is used to restore the pressure to Hydraulic brakes. After receiving a signal the controller will release the detection of wheel slip and then the pump is used to restore the desired amount of pressure to the Braking System. In order to provide a required amount of pressure and to reduce the slipping, the controller will modulate the pump status.


In the vehicle, a controller is an ECU unit that receives the information from each and every wheel and if the wheel loses the traction then the signal is sent to the controller. After receiving the signal, the controller will then limit the brake force and it automatically activates the ABS that activates the braking valves on and off.

Also read: Intelligent Speed Assist (ISA) – Advanced Car Safety Technology that Assures Safety

Type of Brakes in Anti-Lock Braking System

In car safety list, the Anti-Lock Braking System is the main feature and this system has five types of braking that is as follows:

•    One-Channel, One-Sensor ABS

One Channel Braking System is mostly featured in the Vans, Pick-Up Trucks and in SUVs that have a rear-wheel ABS. This system has only one valve that controls both the rear wheels and one-speed sensor. In this system, the rear wheels are monitored together and before the ABS kicks in this system have to start to lock-up. This system is easy to identify as there are no individual speed sensors for any wheel.

•    Two-Channel, Four Sensor ABS

This system was introduced in the late 80s and was used till 1990s and this system was mainly found in the passengers’ vehicle. This system used a speed sensor on each wheel with one front valve control and one rear valve control. In this system, if the speed sensor detects any lock up at any of the wheels then the control module pulses the valve at the end of the vehicle for both the wheels.

•    Three-Channel, Four-Sensor ABS

This system is mostly fitted in the pickup trucks that have a four-wheel ABS and it is equipped with speed sensor and a valve for front and rear wheels. The front wheels have an individual control through this system to achieve maximum braking force and it monitored rear wheels together.

•    Three-Channel, Four-Sensor ABS

Old vehicles that have four-wheel ABS usually used this system as it has a four wheel speed sensor and it has only one valve for rear wheels.

•    Four-Channel, Four-Sensor ABS

In this system, there is speed sensor and valve for all the four wheels and to achieve the maximum braking force through this system the controller individually monitors to each wheel.

Anti-Lock Braking System is a very important thing for safety for car and each and every vehicle should be fitted with a feature to avoid any kind of accident.